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IPI's Preservation Management Approach

Image Permanence Institute Director, James Reilly, explains IPIs approach to managing collection environments for preservation. After years of research on the processes and mechanisms of collection decay, IPI has developed a new approach that enables cultural institutions to understand and improve the long-term preservation of collection materials.
 

 


 

IPI's Monitoring Tools

Image Permanence Institute Director, James Reilly, describes tools designed and developed by IPI for monitoring temperature and relative humidity conditions in cultural institutions. Reilly demonstrates how to use IPIs datalogger, the PEM2, and the accompanying website for data storage, organization and analysis.
 

 


 

Understanding HVAC Systems

Image Permanence Institute Director, James Reilly, discusses the importance of understanding HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) systems and outdoor climate patterns when managing environments for museum or library collections. Because HVAC systems modify the outdoor air to create the indoor environments surrounding collection objects, it is essential for preservation staff to have a basic knowledge of how these systems work and how their operation impacts the preservation of the collections.
 

 


 

Sustainable Preservation Strategies

Image Permanence Institute Director, James Reilly, explains how IPIs tools and analysis methods have lead to a management approach that balances the long-term preservation of collections with the sustainable operation of mechanical systems. By considering the general equilibration rates of collection materials and using the Preservation Metrics to interpret environmental data, IPI believes it is possible to implement energy-saving HVAC operations that could benefit long-term preservation of collections.
 

 


 

IPI Preservation Metrics

Image Permanence Institute Director, James Reilly, explains the development and the application of IPIs analysis tools, the Preservation Metrics. The Preservation Metrics are algorithms that use the observed temperature and humidity conditions to estimate the risk of four types of potential damage to collection materials.
 

Analyze the preservation quality of your storage environment with eCNB.

 

Location Dataset Questions Where to Find the Answer in eCNB
What is the environment in the space? Graphs
Analysis—Statistics
What is the preservation quality of the environment in the space?

Analysis—Risks & Metrics
Analysis—Compare (Professional Level)

How does this space compare to others?

Graphs
Analysis—Compare (Professional Level)

Which spaces need improvements?

Analysis—Risks & Metrics
Analysis—Compare (Professional Level)

What do the metrics mean?

Fundamentals—Preservation Metrics
Storage Planning—Environmental Risk Ratings

What do the risk ratings mean?

Storage Planning—Environmental Risk Ratings

Why am I getting a RISK rating?

Fundamentals—Reduce Risk

What can I do to improve the environment in a location with a RISK rating?

Fundamentals—Reduce Risk
Storage Planning—Dew Point Calculator

 

Material/Collection Questions Where to Find the Answer in eCNB
What environment is best for my collection materials? Storage Planning—Explore Materials (Professional Level)
Which collection materials are vulnerable in their current storage locations?

Storage Planning—Explore Materials (Professional Level)

Do I have locations that are better suited to certain collection materials?

Storage Planning—Explore Materials (Professional Level)

What can I do to improve this location for the materials I have stored there?

Fundamentals—Reduce Risk

Annotated Bibliography

Essentials: Current Research and Current Thinking

Publications

Erhardt, David and Marion Mecklenburg. "Relative Humidity Re-Examined." Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, and Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress. London: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), 1994, pp. 32-38.
A presentation of materials research that outlines the effects of relative humidity on certain materials and modes of decay, suggesting that many museum artifacts can safely withstand wider fluctuations in relative humidity than were previously accepted. The authors conclude that there is no one ‘ideal’ relative humidity for museum collections but suggest the ranges of relative humidity that minimize specific types of change in certain materials and objects. This paper was one of the first publications to call for the re-evaluation of relative humidity standards and ultimately initiated the discussion of appropriate RH guidelines that continues within the field.

Erhardt, D, Tumosa, C and Mecklenburg, M. “Applying Science to the Question of Museum Climate.” Museum Microclimates: Contributions to the Conference in Copenhagen, 19-23 November 2007. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, 2007, pp. 11-18. http://www.natmus.dk/sw53828.asp
A more recent discussion of the authors’ materials research which lead to their conclusion that variations within the range of 30%RH to 60%RH are mechanically safe for general collections. The authors contextualize their recommendations by presenting a history of the development of previously accepted climate standards and delineate how their research can provide the basis for determination of allowable limits of variation in the environment. By distinguishing between material response and permanent or irreversible change (damage), the authors argue that permanence can be optimized by choosing a range of conditions that minimize long-term processes of decay and are also feasible and economical to maintain.

Reilly, J, Nishimura, D, and Zinn, E. “New Tools for Preservation: Assessing Long-term Environmental Effects on Library and Archives Collections”. Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1995.
The 1995 publication by the Commission on Preservation and Access which introduced IPI’s predictive models of deterioration, the Preservation Index (PI) and the Time-Weighted Preservation Index (TWPI), and IPI’s temperature and humidity datalogger, the Preservation Environment Monitor (PEM), as new management tools for libraries, archives and museums. The technical basis for the Preservation Index and the calculation of the Time-Weighted Preservation Index are explained in detail. Methodology for using the TWPI to assess the preservation quality of environmental conditions is discussed with a sample case study, outlining how to interpret and apply TWPI values in data analysis.

Sebera, Donald K. Isoperms: An Environmental Management Tool. Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1994.
In this 1994 publication, author Donald Sebera provides an overview and practical explanation of his “isoperm method,” an approach to quantify the combined effects of temperature and relative humidity upon the deterioration rate of paper–based collections. The author explains why the isoperm represents graphically a “line of constant permanence,” where each combination of temperature and relative humidity conditions on the line have equivalent permanence values or effect on the collections. Methodology for reading isoperm graphs and the application of isoperm values as a strategy to evaluate the preservation consequences of different environmental parameters is presented.

Conference Proceedings

Gray Areas to Green Areas: Developing Sustainable Practices in Preservation Environments, University of Texas, Kilgarlin Center for Preservation of the Cultural Record. Austin, Texas. November 1-2, 2007.
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/kilgarlin/gaga/proceedings.html
A symposium held at the University of Texas, Austin, which addressed the question of how to balance preservation concerns with sustainable practices, examining where the priorities of cultural stewardship may overlap or conflict with new practices for engineering and green building design, energy efficiency and energy reduction, and the responsibility of institutions to minimize their carbon footprints.

Conference on Preventive Conservation: Museum Microclimates, National Museum of Denmark and ICOM-CC Preservation Working Group. Copenhagen, Denmark. November 19-23, 2007.
http://www.natmus.dk/sw53828.asp
An international conference organized by the National Museum of Denmark and the ICOM-CC Preventive Conservation Working Group which brought presenters from all over the world to discuss the current understanding of the effect the environment on collection materials and several alternative, innovative strategies for managing collection environments.

Background / Historical Sources

Plenderleith, H.J and P. Philippot. “Climatology and Conservation in Museums.” Museum, 13.4 (1960) : pp. 243-289.
http://www.bcin.ca/Interface/openbcin.cgi?submit=submit&Chinkey=30266 (abstract)

Thomson, Garry. The Museum Environment. Butterworths, London, 1978 This book, first published in 1978, is the grandfather of museum environment recommendations. A number of papers related to environmental conservation predated it but none had the same level of influence or lasting impact as this book. In the second edition, indoor RH recommendations fall into four categories, depending on the outdoor climate and the materials being stored. RH “day and night throughout the year” is recommended to be 50 ± 5%RH or 55 ± 5%RH with the note that, “the level may be fixed higher or lower, but for mixed collections should be in the range “45 - 60%”. Temperature recommendations are 19°C±1°C in winter and up to 24°C±1°C during the summer, and keeping temperature constant is encouraged to minimize RH cycling.

Material Response and Behavior

Bigourdan, Jean-Louis, Peter Z. Adelstein, and James M. Reilly, "Moisture and Temperature Equilibration: Behavior and Practical Significance in Photographic Film Preservation," La Conservation: Une Science en Evolution, Bilans et Perspectives, Actes des Troisiemes Journées Internationales d'Etudes de l'ARSAG, Paris, 21 au 25 Avril 1997, (Paris: Association pour la recherche scientifique sur les arts graphiques, 1997) pp. 154-164.
https://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/webfm_send/298
A tutorial paper that uses research data to explain how certain enclosure types can slow the rate of moisture equilibration but no enclosures significantly affect the rate of temperature equilibration. Observations of the behavior of hygroscopic materials within a microclimate are also discussed, supporting the authors’ conclusion that tight enclosures mitigate the humidity fluctuations and the current recommended range of RH fluctuations may therefore be unnecessarily narrow.

Bigourdan, Jean-Louis, and James M. Reilly. “Effects of Fluctuating Environments on Paper Materials- Stability and Practical Significance for Preservation.” 2003.
www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/resources/papers-articles-reports
The final grant report for a project funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) that investigated three primary topics: (1) the effect of cycling environments on the chemical stability of paper and film, (2) the rate of moisture conditioning for a variety of materials and enclosures, and (3) the impact of cycling conditions on the microenvironment and moisture content of archival materials.

Child, Robert E. “Insect Damage as a Function of Climate.” Museum Microclimates: Contributions to the Conference in Copenhagen, 19-23 November 2007. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, 2007, pp. 57-60.
A description of the effect of environmental conditions on insect activity, including a brief explanation of why activity is increased by higher ambient temperature and relative humidity.

Erhardt, David and Marion Mecklenburg. "Relative Humidity Re-Examined." Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, and Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress. London: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), 1994, pp. 32-38.
A presentation of materials research that outlines the effects of relative humidity on certain materials and modes of decay, suggesting that many museum artifacts can safely withstand wider fluctuations in relative humidity than were previously accepted.

Price, Lois Olcott. Managing a Mold Invasion: Guidelines for Disaster Response. Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts: Philadelphia, 1994.
A brief pamphlet on how to identify mold, respond to a mold break out and eventually plan to prevent further mold incidents by controlling the relative humidity.

Smith, Kristin M. “Drawing the Line on Acceptable Relative Humidity Fluctuations: Understanding the Moisture Buffering Capacity of Enclosures”. Climate Notes. Issue 14: December, 2011.
https://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/resources/newsletter-archive/v14/acceptable-humidity-fluctuations
A discussion of the significance of temperature and relative humidity fluctuations, with a focus on the moisture-buffering effect of enclosures. Results from IPI research demonstrating that certain enclosures can slow the rate of moisture equilibration are presented and used to support the conclusion that long-term humidity extremes are more significant than short-term fluctuations.

Defining Temperature and Relative Humidity Conditions: Standards and Environmental Parameters

Ashley-Smith, Jonathan, Nick Umney and David Ford. "Let's Be Honest-Realistic Environmental Parameters for Loaned Objects." Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, and Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress. London: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), 1994, pp. 28-31.
A frank plea for more logical and transparent discussions about environmental requirements in institutional loan agreements. Citing several anonymous anecdotes, the author reveals the need for a new approach to negotiating environmental conditions for borrowed-objects and suggests that a little more understanding and honesty could lead to a less restrictive attitude without increasing risk to the collections.

Conrad, Ernest A. “The Realistic Preservation Environment,” Alternative Archival Facilities. National Archive and Records Administration’s 14th Annual Preservation Conference, Washington, DC. 25 March 1999.
http://www.archives.gov/preservation/storage/realistic-preservation-environment.html
A concise description of how to evaluate a buildings’ capacity for climate control and identify sources of heat and moisture, in order to arrive at a cost-conscious design for climate control.

Erhardt, David and Marion Mecklenburg. "Relative Humidity Re-Examined." Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, and Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress. London: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), 1994, pp. 32-38.
A presentation of materials research that outlines the effects of relative humidity on certain materials and modes of decay, suggesting that many museum artifacts can safely withstand wider fluctuations in relative humidity than were previously accepted.

Erhardt, D, Mecklenburg, M., Tumosa, C. and McCormick-Goodhard, M. “The Determination of Allowable RH Fluctuations.” Newsletter: Western Association for Art Conservation. Vol 17, Number 1 (Jan 1995): p.19.
http://cool.conservation-us.org/waac/wn/wn17/wn17-1/wn17-108.html
A more detailed explanation of the authors’ research on the mechanism of damage caused by RH fluctuations, including data from stress-strain curves, moisture absorption isotherms and plots of RH values which produce “yielding” (response without irreversible deformation) or “failure” (irreversible deformation of the material).

Erhardt, D., Tumosa, C. and Mecklenburg, M. “Applying Science to the Question of Museum Climate.” The Effect of Environment on Artifacts. Contribution to Museum Microclimates, Conference on Preventive Conservation, National Museum of Denmark, 19 November 2007.
http://www.natmus.dk/sw53828.asp
A more recent discussion of the authors’ materials research which lead to their conclusion that variations within the range of 30%RH to 60%RH are mechanically safe for general collections.

Hatchfield, Pamela. “Crack Warp Shrink Flake: A New Look at Conservation Standards.” Museum: American Association of Museums (AAM), January-February, 2011.
A succinct review of the evolution of environmental standards and an outline of the current re-evaluation of temperature and humidity recommendations for museums. The interim guidelines from AIC’s Environmental Guidelines Working Group – a committee called to discuss the broadening of environmental parameters for collections – are also presented.

Kerschner, Richard L. “A Practical Approach to Environmental Requirements for Collections in Historical Buildings.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. Vol 34, Issue 1, Article 8 (1992): pp 65 to 76.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3179613?seq=1
An outline of seven practical climate control actions to guide environmental management decisions in historic structures.

Michalski, Stefan. “The Ideal Climate, Risk Management, the ASHRAE Chapter, Proofed Fluctuations, and Toward a Full Risk Analysis Model,” Contribution to the Experts' Roundtable on Sustainable Climate Management Strategies, Tenerife, Spain, April 2007.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/science/climate/paper_michalski.pdf
A transcript from the author’s Roundtable contribution where he discussed the new ASHRAE chapter, the logic of classifying levels of climate control and identifying the associated collection risk levels, and the movement towards a risk analysis model that incorporates his concept of “proofed” RH fluctuations.

Michalski, Stefan and David Grattan. “Environmental Guidelines for Museums.” Conservation Resource Center (web), Canadian Conservation Institute. 2010.
http://www.cci-icc.gc.ca/crc/articles/enviro/index-eng.aspx
A general introduction to the control of ambient temperature and relative humidity in museums, based on the “Museums, Galleries, Archives and Libraries” chapter in the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. (ASHRAE) Handbook, which classifies the amount of climate control and links the resulting range of RH fluctuation to predicted risk to collection materials.

“Museums, Galleries, Archives and Libraries”. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications, 2007 ASHRAE Handbook. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 2007. Chapter 21, pp.21.1 – 21.23.
http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/basic_search/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=2397
A reference for architects and building engineers that describes HVAC system design parameters and performance target specifications for cultural heritage institutions, according to the building’s classification and possible level of climate control.

Ryhl-Svendsen, M., Jensen, L., Larsen, P. and Padfield, T. “Does a Standard Temperature Need to be Constant?” Contribution to the Going Green conference at the British Musuem, 24 April 2009.
http://www.conservationphysics.org/standards/standardtemperature.php
A comparison of data from three buildings which used air-conditioning, conservation heating or dehumidification without temperature control as methods to control RH, resulting the author’s observation that using only dehumidification offered the greatest energy-savings and best overall climate for the collections.

Padfield, Tim. “The Role of Standards and Guidelines: Are They a Substitute for Understanding a Problem or a Protection Against the Consequences of Ignorance?” Durability and Change, Krumbein, W. E. et al (editors). Wiley 1994, pp191-99.
http://www.padfield.org/tim/cfys/ppubs/dahlem.pdf
An argument against applying fixed environmental standards without questioning the relevance to the specific situation; the author encourages the development of rational and flexible guidelines in order to accommodate a greater variety of historic structures and materials.

Documenting the Current Storage Environment

Arenstein, Rachel. “Datalogger Applications in Monitoring The Museum Environment, Part I: Comparison of Temperature and Relative Humidity Dataloggers.” Conserve O Gram, 2001.
A concise overview of features to consider when researching temperature and relative humidity dataloggers, including a table comparing the specifications of the ten common devices. *Note: an updated version of this Conserve-O-gram is forthcoming. Keep an eye out for a 2011 publication on this topic by the same author.
Smith, Kristin M. “He Said, She Said: Discrepancies in Temperature and Relative Humidity Readings”. Climate Notes. Issue 5: September, 2009.
https://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/resources/newsletter-archive/v5/discrepancies-readings
An article from IPI’s newsletter explaining why discrepancies between temperature and humidity readings are inherent to nature of measurement and rarely indicate malfunction of the device.

Energy Saving Options and Alternative Environmental Management Strategies

Brokerhof, Agnes W. “Applying the Outcome of Climate Research in Collection Risk Management.” Museum Microclimates: Contributions to the Conference in Copenhagen, 19-23 November 2007. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, 2007, pp. 115-122.
http://www.natmus.dk/sw53828.asp
A discussion of the focus and application of research on the deterioration of materials within the conservation field. The author argues there is a need for the field to transition from defining numerical standards to a systematic approach of collection risk management.

Henry, Michael C. “The Heritage Building Envelope as a Passive and Active Climate.” Opportunities and Issues in Reducing Dependency on Air-Conditioning, Contribution to Experts’ Roundtable on Sustainable Climate Management Strategies, April 2007.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/our_projects/science/climate/paper_henry.pdf
A commentary on environmental management strategies that utilize the building’s features to moderate its conditions rather than air-conditioning, with several case studies to demonstrate the implementation and possible risks. Cultural and global significance of reducing energy consumption is also discussed.

Padfield, Tim and Poul Larsen. “Low-Energy Air Conditioning of Archives.” Preprints, 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-15 September 2005: ICOM Committee for Conservation. London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd, 2005, pp. 677-80.
http://www.conservationphysics.org/arnemag/arnemag_nrwch.pdf
A discussion of purpose-built storage buildings designed for passive climate control, with data from two specific buildings in Denmark.

Significance of Sustainable Preservation Practices

Henry, Michael C. “What Will the Cultural Record Say About Us? Stewardship of Culture and the Mandate for Environmental Sustainability.” Keynote speech at Gray Areas to Green Areas Conference on Developing Sustainable Preservation Environments, 1 November 2007.
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/kilgarlin/gaga/proceedings2008/GAGA07-henry.pdf
A brief discussion of why it is imperative for cultural heritage institutions to consider their role in environmental sustainability and global climate change, concluding with a succinct outline of a framework for sustainable environmental management.

Henry, Michael C. “From the Outside In: Preventive Conservation, Sustainability and Environmental Management,” Conservation: The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter: V22, No. 1: Spring 2007.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications/newsletters/pdf/v22n1.pdf
An article encouraging stewards of cultural heritage to review current approaches to preventive conservation and to seek new environmental management strategies that promote not only the conservation of material culture but also conservation of the global environment.

Henry, Michael C. “To Everything There is a Season: Strategic Thinking for Sustainable Environmental Management for Collections Conservation.” Combined Actions and Coordinated Efforts in Pursuit of Sustainable Preservation. Contribution to the Sustainable Cultural Heritage Conference, Washington, DC, 11 May 2009.
http://www.neh.gov/projects/Conference_09May/NEH-CNR_Conference.htm
A conference presentation that offers a definition of ‘sustainability’ as it relates to cultural heritage institutions and lists several recommendations for developing strategic and sustainable environmental management practices, in lieu of the traditional, prescriptive model.

Kino, Carol, “Keeping Art, and Climate, Controlled,” New York Times, April 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/05/arts/design/05kino.html?pagewanted=all
The 2009 flood at Cragside, a Victorian House Museum in Northumberland, England, serves as a starting point for this discussion of how climate control fits within the priorities for a museum collection and highlights the key points of the contemporary research in environmental management.

Podany, Jerry. “Sustainable Stewardship: Preventive Conservation in a Changing World,” Cultural Heritage and Climate Change. Contribution to the Sustainable Cultural Heritage Conference, Washington, DC, 11 May 2009.
http://www.neh.gov/projects/Conference_09May/PODANY_09May.pdf
A discussion of how the preventive conservation field has evolved over the last few decades, giving perspective to the expanding roles and responsibilities of the profession resulting from progress in research and the growing concern for sustainable practices.

Staniforth, Sarah. “Sustainability and Collections,” Conservation Perspectives: The GCI Newsletter: V26.1: Spring 2011.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/26_1/sustainability.html
A brief article about the role of sustainability in museums, including options for achieving energy reduction targets, the evolution of environmental guidelines for collection materials, and adapting museum buildings to meet global climate changes.

Historical Houses and Small Collections

Henry, Michael C. “The Heritage Building Envelope as a Passive and Active Climate: Opportunities and Issues in Reducing Dependency on Air-Conditioning.” Contribution to Experts’ Roundtable on Sustainable Climate Management Strategies, April 2007.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/our_projects/science/climate/paper_henry.pdf
A commentary on environmental management strategies that utilize the building’s features to moderate its conditions rather than air-conditioning, with several case studies to demonstrate the implementation and possible risks. Cultural and global significance of reducing energy consumption is also discussed.

Kerschner, Richard L. “A Practical Approach to Environmental Requirements for Collections in Historical Buildings.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Vol 34, Issue 1, Article 8 (1992): pp 65 to 76.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3179613?seq=1
The author, Director of the Shelburne Museum, outlines seven practical climate control actions to guide environmental management decisions in historic structures.

Kerschner, Richard L and Jennifer Baker. Practical Climate Control: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. 2008.
http://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth/kerschner/ccbiblio.html
An online, annotated bibliography with resources specifically focused on environmental management strategies in historic structures.

Kerschner, Richard L. “Providing Safe and Practical Environments for Cultural Properties in Historic Buildings...and Beyond,” Contribution to 20th Annual Archives Preservation Conference, Beyond the Numbers: Specifying and Achieving an Efficient Preservation Environment. 16 March 2006.
http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conferences/2006/kerschner.pdf
A discussion of how the Shelburne Museum has approached creating and maintaining efficient storage environments over the last three decades; the author describes the challenges, surprises and successes with alternative solutions and unconventional systems for the Shelburne’s various building types and collection materials.

Maekawa, S. and Vincent Beltran. “Climate Controls for Historic Buildings: A New Strategy,” Conservation Perspectives: The GCI Newsletter: V19.1: Spring 2004.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/19_1/news_in_cons2.html
A description of several case studies on alternative climate control strategies, particularly for historic buildings in hot and humid climates, using heating and ventilation to lower relative humidity.

Online Resources: Conference Proceedings and Roundtable Discussions

Experts’ Roundtable on Sustainable Climate Management Strategies, Getty Conservation Institute. Tenerife, Spain. April, 2007.
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/our_projects/science/climate/climate_experts_roundtable.html#proceedings

Gray Areas to Green Areas: Developing Sustainable Practices in Preservation Environments, University of Texas, Kilgarlin Center for Preservation of the Cultural Record. Austin, Texas. November 1-2, 2007.
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/kilgarlin/gaga/proceedings.html

Conference on Preventive Conservation: Museum Microclimates, National Museum of Denmark and ICOM-CC Preservation Working Group. Copenhagen, Denmark. November 19-23, 2007.
http://www.natmus.dk/sw53828.asp
Reviewing Environmental Conditions: NMDC Guiding Principles for Reducing Museums’ Carbon Footprint. National Museum Directors’ Conference. May, 2008.
http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/what-we-do/contributing-sector/environmental-conditions/

Climate Change and Museum Collections, International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC). London, England. September 18, 2008
http://www.iiconservation.org/dialogues/IIC_climate_change_transcript.pdf

NMDC Response to the Museums Association Consultation: Sustainability and Museums. National Museum Directors’ Conference. September, 2008.
http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/media/documents/publications/nmdc_response_ma_sustainability.pdf

Sustainable Cultural Heritage, National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). Washington, DC. May 11, 2009.
http://www.neh.gov/projects/Conference_09May/NEH-CNR_Conference.htm

Rethinking the Museum Climate, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and The Getty Conservation Institute. Boston, April 12-13, 2010.
http://blog.conservation-us.org/blogpost.cfm?threadid=2227&catid=175

The Plus / Minus Dilemma: The Way Forward in Environmental Guidelines. Dialogues for the New Century: Discussions on the conservation of cultural heritage in a changing world. International Institute for Conservation (IIC) and the American Institute for Conservation (AIC) of Historic and Artistic Works. Milwaukee, WI. May 13, 2010.
http://www.iiconservation.org/dialogues/Plus_Minus_trans.pdf

 

 

 

 

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